Thanks to their unspecific mechanism of action, the use of alcohol does not cause resistance in bacteria: The alcohol molecules damage the outer cell membrane, penetrate the cytoplasm…

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Judgment. The mental faculties are the first to be affected by drinking. Alcohol levels as low as . 02% (well under the legal limit in many states) can…

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The metabolism of alcohol also generates reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen radicals) that are toxic to cells by damaging proteins DNA and lipids. Thus in high doses alcohol…

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Clinically relevant ethanol concentrations in blood increase the sodium permeability of the plasma membrane and depress active sodium transport by suppressing Na, K-ATPase activity. As a result, intracellular…

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Alcohol slows the immune system, making bacteria-fighting white blood cells sluggish and much less efficient. Heavy drinkers may be more likely to succumb to illnesses such as tuberculosis…

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Type of alcoholic beverage Average time to metabolize small shot of liquor 1 hour pint of beer 2 hours large glass of wine 3 hours a few drinks…

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Long-Term Health Risks. Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of chronic diseases and other serious problems including: High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, liver…

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The results of these experimental studies offer only very limited evidence that alcohol advertising promotes more favorable drinking beliefs or increases consumption. How does advertising influence binge drinking?…

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Approximately half (52.1%) of all films showed at least one identifiable alcohol brand during the film. Alcohol use exposure increased as the MPAA rating increased (p < ....

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Studies show that posting alcohol-related content on social media is associated with high rates of alcohol consumption, cravings and alcohol addiction. A growing body of research also suggests…

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