With the increase in the molar mass, solubility decreases. In alcohols, −OH group is polar and forms hydrogen bonds with water. This makes alcohol water soluble.
Why higher alcohols are not soluble in water?
Higher alcohols have large no. of hydrocarbon chains which results in more steric hindrance to make bonds which result in less solubility.
Why are smaller alcohols more soluble?
The solubility of lower alcohols is due to the hydrogen bonds between water and polar (-OH) group of alcohol molecules. Phenols too are sparingly soluble in water.
Why are low molecular mass alcohols soluble in water?
Solubility of alcohols and phenols in water is due to their ability to form hydrogen bond with water molecule. … Alcohols with lower molar mass will have smaller hydrocarbon part and therefore tendency to form hydrogen bonding is more and they are more soluble in water.
Why smaller alcohols are soluble in water would alcohols having longer alkyl groups be completely soluble in water?
Propanol has limited solubility. The longer the alkyl chain, the less should be the aqueous solubility. … Well, the longer the chain the less water like the solvent, and the more dispersion forces between alkyl chains. As a physical scientist you should look up a table of alcoholic solubilities in water.
Why alcohols are soluble in water?
Because alcohols form hydrogen bonds with water, they tend to be relatively soluble in water. The hydroxyl group is referred to as a hydrophilic (“water-loving”) group, because it forms hydrogen bonds with water and enhances the solubility of an alcohol in water.
Which is more soluble phenol or alcohol?
Alcohols contain an OH group in which a hydrogen atom is attached to the electronegative oxygen atom, due to which it is capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the water molecule leading to greater solubility of alcohol in water. … Thus ethanol is more soluble in water compared to phenol.
Are all alcohols soluble in water?
Alcohols are slightly or relatively soluble in water. Generally, alcohols tend to form hydrogen bonds with water due to the hydroxyl group which is often referred to as a hydrophilic (water-loving) group. With such property, the solubility of alcohol in water is increased.
Why do alcohols have higher boiling points?
Compared with alkanes, alcohols have significantly higher boiling points. … The large increase in the boiling point of alcohols as the number of hydroxyl groups increases is caused by a greater degree of hydrogen bonding between the molecules.
Which alcohol is most soluble in water?
Because of the strength of the attraction of the OH group, first three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and propanol) are completely miscible. They dissolve in water in any amount.
Alcohol solubility chart.
Why is phenol acidic than ethanol?
The acidic substance has the tendency to produce H+ ion when dissolved in water. Both phenol and ethanol weak acid. However, the acidity of phenol is more than that of ethanol. This is because after losing a proton, the phenoxide ion undergoes resonance & gets stabilized whereas ethoxide ion does not.
Why alcohols and ethers of comparable molecular mass have?
Explain why alcohols and ethers of comparable molecular mass have different boiling points ? Answer: Alcohols undergo intermolecular H-bonding and hence exist as associated molecules. … As a result, ethers exist as discrete molecules which are held only by weak dipole-dipole attractions.
Is octanol polar or nonpolar?
The hydroxy-group of octanol is indeed hydrophilic (polar), but the majority of the molecule wants to stay in the non-polar phase.
Which is more soluble in water ethyl alcohol or dimethyl ether?
In dimethyl ether, the hydrogen atom is not bonded to the electronegative atom instead it is bonded to a carbon atom. Thus, hydrogen bonding is not possible in dimethyl ether. Thus, ethyl alcohol is more soluble in water than dimethyl ether because alcohol contains hydrogen bonding.
Does acetone dissolve in water?
Acetone is a manufactured chemical that is also found naturally in the environment. It is a colorless liquid with a distinct smell and taste. It evaporates easily, is flammable, and dissolves in water.
Do ethers have higher boiling points than alcohols?
(For more information about hydrogen bonding, see chemical bonding: Intermolecular forces.) Because ether molecules cannot engage in hydrogen bonding with each other, they have much lower boiling points than do alcohols with similar molecular weights.