Water molecules are more attracted to each other than ethanol (alcohol) molecules, because water has more hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen. A hydrogen bonded to an oxygen is more “attractive” than a carbon bonded to an oxygen.
Why does water have stronger hydrogen bonds than alcohol?
The hydrogen atoms are slightly positive because the bonding electrons are pulled toward the very electronegative oxygen atoms. … Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than these, and therefore it takes more energy to separate alcohol molecules than it does to separate alkane molecules.
Does water or alcohol have stronger intermolecular forces?
Water had the strongest intermolecular forces and evaporated most slowly. The strength of the intermolecular forces in isopropyl alcohol are in between water and acetone, but probably closer to acetone because the water took much longer to evaporate.
Why does water have higher boiling point than ethanol?
Hydrogen bonding is not as extensive in ethanol as in water, and so its boiling point is lower than water’s, despite its greater molecular weight. Ethanol is completely soluble in water, but when a liter of ethanol is added to a liter of water at 20°, only 1.93 liters of the mixture is produced.
Why is water so much polar than alcohol?
Because water molecules are polar, any liquid that does not have polar molecules—such as oil—is usually immiscible with water. Rubbing alcohol molecules have a polar and nonpolar part, which means they are able to form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore able to mix with it.
Which alcohol has the strongest IMF?
Butanol has the strongest IMF and methanol has the weakest.
What is the strongest intermolecular force?
Dipole-dipole interactions are the strongest intermolecular force of attraction.
What are the strongest to weakest intermolecular forces?
In order from strongest to weakest, the intermolecular forces given in the answer choices are: ion-dipole, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, and Van der Waals forces.
What is the weakest intermolecular force?
The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction.
Why is water the strongest intermolecular force?
The strongest intermolecular force in water is a special dipole bond called the hydrogen bond. … Hydrogen bonds are especially strong because the hydrogen atom in molecules such as water is a small, naked proton with no inner electron shell.
Why does alcohol boil before water?
When a mixture of water and alcohol boils, the vapors are a mixture of water vapor and alcohol vapor; they evaporate together. But because alcohol evaporates more readily than water, the proportion of alcohol in the vapors is somewhat higher than it was in the liquid.
Does ethanol dissolve in water?
Ethanol is actually miscible in water, which means that the two liquids can be mixed in any proportion without any limit to their solubility.
Is ethanol a hydrogen bond?
Hydrogen bonding can occur between ethanol molecules, although not as effectively as in water. The hydrogen bonding is limited by the fact that there is only one hydrogen in each ethanol molecule with sufficient δ+ charge. … The hydrogen bonding in the ethanol has lifted its boiling point about 100°C.
Why does a penny hold so many drops of water?
The attraction of water molecules to other substances, like soil or glass, is called adhesion. As drops of water are added onto a penny, the adhesive force between the water and the penny keeps the water from falling off. Cohesive forces are strong, but not unbreakable.
Why can more drops of water fit on a penny than alcohol?
But alcohol has a different size and shape and has its polar part on one end. Alcohol molecules can meet at areas where they would not attract as strongly. The water is more attracted to itself than to the metal of the penny. The alcohol is a bit less attracted to itself so it spreads more on the penny.
Why does pepper sink in alcohol?
The pepper is able to float on the surface because water molecules like to cling to one another. They arrange themselves in a way that creates surface tension on the top of the water. This tension keeps the pepper flakes floating on top instead of sinking to the bottom of the bowl.