The alcohols are a homologous series of organic compounds . They all contain the functional group –OH, which is responsible for the properties of alcohols. The names of alcohols end with ‘ol’, eg ethanol. The first three alcohols in the homologous series are methanol, ethanol and propanol.
How do you name alcohols?
Alcohols are usually named by the first procedure and are designated by an -ol suffix, as in ethanol, CH3CH2OH (note that a locator number is unnecessary on a two-carbon chain). On longer chains the location of the hydroxyl group determines chain numbering. For example: (CH3)2C=CHCH(OH)CH3 is 4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol.
How do you systematically name an alcoholic?
The rules for naming an alcohol are:
- Find the longest carbon chain and name it.
- Number the carbon atoms in the chain so that the functional group (in this case, the hydroxyl group) has the lowest possible number.
- Identify any branches joined onto the main chain and name them.
How can you Recognise an alcohol from its formula?
- have the same general formula.
- differ by CH2 in molecular formulae from neighbouring compounds.
- show a gradual variation in physical properties , such as their boiling points.
- have similar chemical properties.
How is alcohol made BBC Bitesize?
Ethanol can be made by a process called fermentation. During fermentation, sugar (glucose) from plant material is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. This typically takes place at temperatures of around 30°C. Unlike ethene, sugar from plant material is a renewable resource.
What are the first 5 alcohols?
The four most common alcohols, which are also the simplest, are methanol (CH3OH), ethanol(C2H5OH), propanol (C3H7OH) and butanol (C4H9OH).
|Chemical Formula||IUPAC Name||Common Name|
|C 2H 5OH||Ethanol||Grain alcohol|
|C 3H 7OH||Isopropyl alcohol||Rubbing alcohol|
|C 5H 11OH||Pentanol||Amyl alcohol|
What is the common name of alcohol?
Physical properties of alcohols
|IUPAC name||common name||formula|
What do all alcohols have in common?
An alcohol is an organic compound with a hydroxyl (OH) functional group on an aliphatic carbon atom. Because OH is the functional group of all alcohols, we often represent alcohols by the general formula ROH, where R is an alkyl group.
What are the first 4 alcohols?
The first four members of the series are methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol.
What is the color of ethanol?
Ethanol appears as a clear colorless liquid with a characteristic vinous odor and pungent taste.
What is the 3 types of alcohol?
There are three main types of alcohol: methyl, isopropyl, and ethyl which are also known as primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols respectively. All are toxic. Human beings can consume the only ethyl, or grain, alcohol, but the others find use as sterilizing agents, or as fuels.
What are the first 10 alcohols?
- propyl alcohol.
- n-propyl alcohol.
- propylic alcohol.
- ethyl carbinol.
When naming an alcohol the root is based on?
The root name is based on the longest chain with the -OH attached. The chain is numbered so as to give the alcohol unit the lowest possible number. The alcohol suffix is appended after the hydrocarbon suffix minus the “e” : e.g.
What is the formula of ethanol?
What is produced when an alcohol is oxidised?
The oxidation of alcohols is an important reaction in organic chemistry. Primary alcohols can be oxidized to form aldehydes and carboxylic acids; secondary alcohols can be oxidized to give ketones. Tertiary alcohols, in contrast, cannot be oxidized without breaking the molecule’s C–C bonds.
What elements is ethanol made up of?
Ethanol is composed of two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Ethanol is also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol.